A fiber-optic cable composed of very thin strands of glass or plastic known as optical fibers. One cable can have as few as two strands or as many as several hundreds of them. These optical fiber cables carry information in the form of data between two places using light-based technology. Once the light beams travel down the optical fiber cable (OFC), they would emerge at the other end. A photoelectric cell will need to turn the pulses of light back into electrical information.

The world of telecommunications is moving from copper wire networks to fiber optics. Optical fiber is a very thin strand of pure glass which acts as a waveguide for light over long distances. It uses a principle known as total internal reflection. Fiber optic cable is actually composed of two layers of glass. The core carries the actual light signal, and the cladding, which is a layer of a glass surrounding the core. The cladding has a lower refractive index than the core.

This causes Total Internal Reflection within the core. Most fibers operate in duplex pairs: one fiber uses to send and the other used to receive. But it is possible to send both signals over a single strand. There are two main types of fiber optic cables:  Single-Mode Fiber (SMF) and Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF). The difference is in the size of the core. MMF has a much wider core, allowing many modes (or “rays”) of light to propagate. SMF has a very narrow core which allows only a single mode of light to propagate. Each type of fiber has different properties with its own advantages and disadvantages.

Why use optic fiber cable?

  • They have unlimited information
  • They have high carrying capacity (very broad bandwidth, THz or Tbits/s)
  • They have very low transmission losses (<0.2dB/km, cf1dB/km microwave, 10db/km twisted copper pair)
  • They do not dissipate heat
  • They are immune to cross-talk and electromagnetic interference
Fiber optic cables have many uses in a variety of situations

Fiber optic cables have many uses in a variety of situations in industries and applications. Check out some of these uses:


Optical fibers are suitable for medical use. They can make inflexible strands. hin for insertion into the lungs, blood vessels, and many hollow parts of the body.  These optical fibers use in several instruments. which allows doctors to observe internal body parts without performing any surgery.


Optic Fiber installed and used for receiving and transmitting purposes. Telephone transmission uses fiber optic cables. These fibers send energy in the form of light pulses. Its technology is comparable to that of the coaxial cables. Apart from that, the optical fibers are able to handle thousands of conversations.


Optic fibers are used to connect servers and users in a variety of network settings. It also helps in increasing the accuracy and speed of data transmission.


Fibers are used for imaging in reach areas, such as sensory devices to make temperature, like wiring. Where EMI is an issue, pressure, as wiring in industrial settings and automobiles. Broadcast/CATV Cable companies use fiber optic cables for wiring HDTV, CATV, and video-on-demand.


They use as hydrophones for SONAR and seismic uses, such as wiring in submarines, plane, and other vehicles. 

Data Storage 

Fiber cables are used for data storage as well as transmission. Fiber optic cables are also used for imaging and lighting and as sensors to monitor and measure a vast array of variables. Furthermore, fiber cables help in the development and testing across all the removed applications.


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