A coaxial cable is a type of copper cable built with a metal shield. Other components use to block signal interference. It is primarily used by cable TV companies to connect satellite antenna facilities. Connect to customer homes and businesses. It is also sometimes used by telephone companies to connect central offices. Connect to telephone poles near customers. Some homes and offices use coaxial cable. Too, but its widespread use as an Ethernet connectivity medium in enterprises. And in data centers replace by the deployment of twisted pair cabling.

Moreover, Coaxial cable received its name because it includes one physical channel. That carries the signal surrounded. After a layer of insulation — by another concentric physical channel. Both run along the same axis. Also, The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can place in a single outer sheathing. And repeaters can carry information for a great distance.

Who invented coaxial cable?

Coaxial cable was invented in 1880 by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside. Who patented the invention and design that same year. AT&T established its first cross-continental coaxial transmission system in 1940. Depending on the carrier technology used and other factors. Twisted-pair copper wire and optical fiber are alternatives to coaxial cable.

How do coaxial cables work?

Coaxial cables have concentric layers of electrical conductors and insulating material. This construction ensures the signal surrounds within the cable. It prevents electrical noise from interfering with the signal. 

The center conductor layer is a thin conducting wire, either solid or braided copper. A dielectric layer made up of insulating material with very well-defined electrical characteristics. It surrounds the wire. A shield layer then surrounds the dielectric layer with metal foil. The whole assembly will wrap in an insulating jacket. The outer metal shield layer of the coaxial cable is typically grounded in the connectors at both ends. To shield the signals and as a place for stray interference signals to dissipate.

A key to coaxial cable design is tight control of cable dimensions and materials. Together, they ensure the characteristic impedance of the cable takes on a fixed value. High-frequency signal reflects at impedance mismatches, causing errors.

Characteristic impedance is sensitive to signal frequency. Above 1 GHz, the cable maker must use a dielectric. That does not attenuate the signal too much. Change the characteristic impedance in a way that creates signal reflections.

The electrical characteristics of coax are application-dependent and crucial for good performance. Two standard characteristic impedances are 50 ohms, used in moderate power environments. And 75 ohms, common for connections to antennas and residential installations.

Types of coaxial cables

Types of coaxial cables

There are many types of coaxial cables, some types include:

Hard-line coaxial cable- This relies on round copper tubing. A combination of metals as a shield, such as aluminum or copper. These cables use to connect a transmitter to an antenna.

Triaxial cable- This has a third layer of shielding. That protects signals transmitted down the cable.

Rigid-line coaxial cables- Made up of twin copper tubes that function as unbendable pipes. These lines designed for indoor use between high-power radio frequency (RF) transmitters.

Radiating cable- This mimics many components of the hard-line cable. But with tuned slots in the shielding matched to the RF wavelength at which the cable will operate. It is commonly used in elevators, military equipment, and underground tunnels. 

Uses of coaxial cables

In the home and small offices, short coaxial cables are used for cable television. Also home video equipment, amateur radio equipment, and measuring devices. , coaxial cables were also used as an early form of Ethernet.  Yet, they remain in use for cable broadband internet. Furthermore, Coaxial cables are also used in automobiles, planes, military, and medical equipment. As well on connect satellite dishes, radio, and television antennae to respective receivers.


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